Benefits and Limitations of Personalised Learning:

Module 4: Cognitive Explanations of LearningMetacognition:• John Flavell + Lev Vygotsky + Jean Piaget• Metacognition is the monitoring and control of thought, thinking about cognition, self reflection• Metacognition is the process of being self-aware of one’s own personal learning strengths and weaknesses; strategy knowledge and use; and a capacity for self-reflectionStrategies to Improve Metacognitive Awareness:– Discuss with the class the importance of metacognitive knowledge– Model your own metacognitive processes for students– Ensure there is time for group discussion and reflection about learning activities– Make visible the cognitive strategies students are usingImprove regulation of cognition by checking planning, monitoring and evaluating strategy useExamples of Reflective Questions:– What is your goal? strategies are you using?– Who can you ask for help?– How often are you studying?– Do you think your strategies are working?– Do you need to make changes to your strategies?– Did you achieve your goal?– What strategies worked?– What will you do differently next time?Benefits and Limitations of Metacognition;– Self-awareness– More efficient use of study time by using strategies– Taking control of learningNot always easy to identify learning strategies– Hard to be honest about strategiesIntrospection can lead to doubtModule 5: The Constructivist ClassroomConstructivism:• John Dewey + Jean Piaget + Jerome Bruner + Benjamin BloomKey Principles of Constructivism;– Learners are active participants in their own learning – the leam by doing– Learners are self-regulated – they plan, monitor and evaluate (metacognition)– Social interaction is necessary for learning– Individuals are encouraged to make sense of information for themselvesClassroom Strategies of Constructivism;– Discovery learning – problem based learning– Problem solving– Open-ended questionsReflection; Learning journal– Questioning– Collaborative learning– Small-group learning– Social learning – online networking Peer teaching– Use of experts e.g. parents or community members– Use of Bloom’s taxonomy to structure a series of questions that each student can apply based on their capacity– Cultural experiences – excursions to art galleries, museums, national parksBenefits and Limitations of Constructivism;– Active discovery promotes curiosity– Active rather than passive learningInteraction with experts– Encouraged use of available technology– Requires considerable time– Students may not have group work skills– Lack of student motivation– Students may leam incorrectlyModule 6: Contemporary Teaching StrategiesCollaborative Inquiry and Problem Based Learning:• John Chaffee + John Dewey + Socrates• Scaffolds (tools, resources, and processes provided by the teacher)• Before learning – during learning – after learning• Based around experiencing and solving real world problemsCharacteristics of Collaborative Inquiry and Problem Based Learning:– Posing questions and investigating these using data/information– Freedom for groups of students to define their own inquiry or problem solving process– Development of ideas within a community of learners– Student-centred activities in order to solve a problem– Discovery or exploration of ideasElements of the Process of Inquiry/Problem Based Learning;– Asking questions– Planning– Investigation– Analysis of information– Model creation of the solution/findings– Conclusion– ReflectionScaffold Examples:– providing some direct instruction at the start of the project – helps orient students to the topic and provides an overview of the importance of the topic– provide a series of steps that the students have to follow, based on relevant content– take students on an excursion– ask the local experts to speak to class and respond to questions– provide regular opportunities in class to discuss the strategies students are using, and their perspective on how effective these strategies wereBenefits and Limitations of Inquiry/Problem Based Learning:– Teaches critical thinking skills– Focuses on strategies to overcome problems– Improve students attitudes towards learning– Not all students comfortable with group work– Relies on introspection and self-report– Regular feedback can be difficultModule 7: Personalised Learning and Data Driven Teaching• David Miliband• select age-equivalent content that is meaningful and respects students’ individual needs, strengths, language proficiencies and interests• provide stimulating learning experiences that challenge, extend and develop all students• use their knowledge of students’ individual needs, strengths and interests to ensure access to the teaching and learning program.• Emphasises student individuality• Meaningful connection between student and curriculum• Data driven teaching uses individual data from student assessment to tailor make future assessments and activities based on current ability levelBenefits and Limitations of Personalised Learning:Many ways for students to present work– Students have a choice in how they learn and what materials they choose to leam with– Encourages autonomy, self awareness, and responsibility– Some students are indecisive and procrastinate– Finance restraints– Without direct guidance curriculum components may not be fulfilled