Microarray

1. Genomics is the study of:a. The structure and function   of mutations and how they alter genetic traits.b. Genes and the DNA sequences   between genes and how they determine development.

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c. The information provided by   computer programs which analyzes mRNA.
d. The human genome as compared   to other vertebrate genomes.

 
2. Microarrays are a very useful tool in genomics because they:
a. Help scientists examine   intergenetic DNA by separating it from genes.
b. Provide a unique promoter   region for polymerase chain reactions.
c. Allow scientists to examine   thousands of genes all at once.
d. Decrease the time it takes   for scientists to make copies of DNA.

 
3. Generally,   every cell in our body contains the same 20,000 (or so) genes. However, cells in our body are different   from each other because they:
a. Have   different genes turned “on” or “off” to support different functions.
b. Contain   different copies of genes for different functions.
c. Provide   different nucleotide bases for each developmental function.
d. Function   differently based on varying proteomics.

 
4. How can   scientists determine the function of or differences between cell types? They can examine the:
a. Number of   nucleotide bases in genes versus intergenetic sequences.
b. Amount of   mRNA expressed for each gene in a cell type, and then compare that   information between cell types.
c. Amount of   mutations between genes in the intergenetic spaces.
d. Number of   tRNA copies for a particular cell type.

 
5. How is a   microarray constructed? In each spot,   there are:
a. Copies of   all the genes for an organism.
b. Multiple copies   of one gene; each spot has copies for a different gene.
c. Multiple   copies of intergenetic sequences, which bind to genes in the samples.
d. Copies of   intergenetic sequences, which promote the replication of DNA in a sample.

 
6. The   experiment that begins in Chapter 3 of the simulation seeks to answer the   question:
a. What is   the difference between intergenetic spaces in cancer cells versus healthy   cells?
b. Why do   different cell types express different amounts of mRNA?
c. How do   different cancer cells produce different mutations?
d. What is   the difference between healthy cells and cancer cells?

 
7. Why can’t   doctors use cell appearance to diagnose cancer?
a. Not all   cancer cells look different from healthy cells.
b. Cancer   cells are too small to examine using cell appearance.
c. Not all   cancer cells are able to be biopsied from the body.
d. Cancer   cells change appearance when taken out of the body.

 
8. In the   experiment, a solvent is added to each cell type (healthy cells and cancer   cells). After the sample tube   containing each cell type is mixed on the vortex, the RNA is separated from   the rest of the sample in a centrifuge. Why does DNA settle to the bottom of the tube and RNA doesn’t?
a. RNA is   much longer than DNA.
b. RNA is   attached to proteins that help it stay in solution.
c. DNA is   attached to biomolecules that weigh it down and help it settle to the bottom.
d. DNA is   much longer than RNA.

 
9. What   feature does mRNA have that tRNA and rRNA do not? mRNA always:
a. Contains a   GABA box.
b. Contains a   TATA sequence.
c. Ends with   a G tail.
d. Ends with   a poly-A tail.

 
10. How do   the beads in the column separate mRNA from all other RNA? The beads contain:
a. Sequences   that magnetically separate the mRNA.
b. A   glue-like substance derived from spider webs.
c. mRNA   contains a Poly A tail that binds to Poly-T’s.
d. It is   randomly divided.

 
11. After you   isolate mRNA, you have to make a DNA copy. Why can’t we just use mRNA?
a. DNA is   much more stable than mRNA.
b. We have to   add a fluorescent label that will allow us to see the sample.
c. mRNA will   eventually transform into tRNA making it unusable.
d. A and B

 
12.   Scientists call hybridization the key to microarrays. Hybridization occurs when:
a. Two   complimentary strands of DNA from different sources bind to each other.
b. Poly-A   tails bind to Poly-Ts.
c. Different   species interbreed and create new DNA base pairings.
d. Two   strands of identical DNA bind without using the traditional nucleotide pairs.

 
13. When you   scan the microarray in the scanner, the data show some dark spots. What do these represent?
a. The DNA   that has been replicated in healthy cells.
b. The mRNA   that was washed away in the washing solution.
c. The DNA   that was not transcribed and expressed in healthy cells.
d. The mRNA   that was not bound by Oligo-d-tails in the beads.

 
14. When you   scan the microarray in the scanner, some spots are yellow and represent   places where the gene was expressed in both healthy and cancer cells. These spots tell us:
a. Where to   look for mutations.
b. Where DNA   hybridized in cancer cells.
c. That DNA   expression didn’t change in these genes when cancer occurred.
d. That the   microarray didn’t work in these genes.

 
15. In our   example, gene 6219 mRNA is made in both healthy and cancerous cells; however,   proteins are only translated from that mRNA in healthy cells. Microarray analysis:
a. Shows us   this defect by making yellow spots.
b. Cannot   show us this defect, which is a limitation of this type of analysis.
c. Show us   this defect by making red spots.
d. Cannot   show us this defect, which is a benefit of this type of analysis.